What is Cyber Security? - Definition, Meaning and Best Practices

What is Cyber Security? - Definition, Meaning and Best Practices

Cyber security is a critical component of our digital world, protecting us from threats that can compromise our personal information and sensitive data.

From malware to phishing attacks, cyber threats come in various forms, but there are steps we can take to protect ourselves.

We will explore the importance of cyber security, the different types of cyber threats, and best practices for safeguarding against them, both for individuals and businesses.

Let's learn how to stay safe in the digital landscape.

On this page, we'll cover:


Key takeaways:

  • Cyber security is essential in protecting your personal and business information from various online threats, such as malware, phishing, and ransomware.

  • To safeguard against cyber threats, it's important to use strong passwords, keep software updated, use firewalls, and be cautious of suspicious emails and links.

  • Businesses should implement a cyber security plan, regularly train employees on cyber security awareness, backup data, monitor network activity, and have an incident response plan in place to protect against cyber attacks.


What is cyber security?

Cybersecurity refers to the practice of protecting systems, networks, and data from digital attacks.

It is an essential aspect of the modern digital landscape, encompassing a range of measures aimed at safeguarding sensitive information and mitigating risks posed by cyber threats.

Malware, phishing, ransomware, and hacking are among the common types of cyber threats that cybersecurity professionals work diligently to counteract. By identifying and addressing vulnerabilities in systems and networks, cybersecurity plays a pivotal role in fortifying the defenses of organizations against malicious activities. Leading cybersecurity entities such as NIST, Gartner, and the FBI provide frameworks, guidance, and resources to help businesses enhance their cybersecurity posture, ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of digital assets.

Why is cyber security important?

Cybersecurity is crucial for organisations to protect their technology infrastructure, sensitive data, and software applications from cyber threats.

With the constantly evolving landscape of online threats, businesses and individuals are more vulnerable than ever to cyber attacks and data breaches. These incidents can have severe consequences, ranging from financial loss to reputational damage. It is essential for management to prioritise cybersecurity and invest in robust security measures. Organisations like IT Governance, Kaspersky, and ISC2 provide valuable resources and certifications to help entities strengthen their cybersecurity defences. By implementing best practices and staying informed about the latest threats, businesses can safeguard their assets and maintain trust with their customers."

Types of cyber threats

Cyber threats encompass a variety of malicious activities, including malware infections, ransomware attacks, and sophisticated AI-driven cyber assaults.

These threats pose significant risks to individuals, organisations, and governments worldwide. Malware, such as viruses, ,worms, and trojans, can infiltrate systems, steal sensitive data, and disrupt operations. Ransomware encrypts files and demands payment for decryption, causing financial losses and data breaches. AI-powered attacks utilise machine learning algorithms to bypass traditional security measures and launch targeted assaults. Recent incidents involving malicious entities like Emotet and Talos have demonstrated the evolving landscape of cyber threats and underscore the importance of robust cybersecurity measures in today's technology-driven world.


Malware is a type of malicious software designed to infiltrate systems, compromise data, and disrupt normal operations.

Over the years, the landscape of malware has evolved significantly, with cybercriminals constantly developing new and sophisticated forms of attacks to bypass traditional security measures. Malicious software can spread through various distribution methods, including phishing emails, infected websites, removable media, and social engineering tactics. Once malware gains access to a device or network, it can cause a range of detrimental effects such as data breaches, financial losses, system crashes, and even complete lockdown of critical systems. With the continuous advancement in technology, the cybersecurity industry has also been leveraging tools like Artificial Intelligence to enhance malware detection, helping organisations stay one step ahead of cyber threats. Entities like Kaspersky and AV-TEST play crucial roles in evaluating and testing security solutions to combat the ever-evolving landscape of cyber attacks.


Phishing is a deceptive cyber attack that involves tricking users into revealing sensitive information such as passwords or financial details via email or fake websites.

In phishing campaigns, attackers use various tactics to make the fraudulent emails seem legitimate, often impersonating reputable entities like banks, social media platforms, or even government agencies. They create a sense of urgency or fear to prompt recipients to take quick actions, such as clicking on malicious links or sharing confidential data.

Organisations face severe consequences from phishing attacks, including financial losses, reputational damage, and data breaches. Individuals can also suffer identity theft and fraud, leading to personal and financial turmoil. 

Cybersecurity awareness training is crucial in combatting phishing treats. Programmes like KnowBe4 provide simulated phishing exercises to educate employees on recognising and reporting suspicious emails. Government agencies like the FBI also offer resources to help organisations enhance their cybersecurity posture and respond effectively to phishing incidents.

Denial of service (DoS) attacks

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks aim to disrupt network services, rendering systems or websites inaccessible to legitimate users.

These attacks overload servers and networks with malicious traffic, causing them to become unresponsive. By flooding the targeted resources, perpetrators prevent genuine traffic from reaching its destination, leading to downtime and financial losses for businesses. The impact of DoS attacks can range from temporary disruptions to complete system failures, potentially tarnishing a company's reputation and customer trust.

To mitigate the risks associated with such assaults, organisations often deploy robust cybersecurity measures such as intrusion detection systems, firewalls, and load balancers. Leading cybersecurity providers like Fortinet and Cisco offer advanced solutions to enhance network resilience and aid in swift recovery post-attack.

Man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks

Man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks involve intercepting communication between two parties to eavesdrop or alter the data exchanged.

These attacks take advantage of vulnerabilities in network protocols or devices, allowing cybercriminals to position themselves in the middle and monitor sensitive information. Common methods include ARP spoofing, DNS spoofing, and Wi-Fi eavesdropping.

By exploiting these weaknesses, attackers can intercept login credentials, financial details, and other confidential data. Firewalls play a crucial role in identifying and blocking suspicious network traffic that could indicate a MitM attack.

Automation tools, such as those offered by Check Point Software, can also detect unusual patterns in network behaviour and trigger alerts for immediate action.


Ransomware is a form of malware that encrypts files or locks systems, demanding payment for decryption or restoration of access.

As ransomware attacks continue to plague organisations across various industries, the ever-evolving nature of these malicious threats poses a significant challenge to cybersecurity professionals.

Cybersecurity experts are constantly adapting their defence strategies to combat the changing tactics of cybercriminals who exploit vulnerabilities in networks and systems.

The emergence of advanced ransomware variants has added complexity to the threat landscape, making it imperative for entities to invest in robust AI and automation tools for early detection and mitigation.



How to protect against cyber threats?

Protecting against cyber threats requires a proactive approach that includes implementing security best practices, educating users, and securing network systems.

One of the best practices to protect your systems is to regularly update software across all devices and applications. This helps patch vulnerabilities that cybercriminals exploit to gain access to your sensitive data. Using strong passwords that are unique for each account adds an extra layer of protection. Educating users on the importance of password hygiene and providing training on how to identify phishing attempts can significantly reduce the risk of a security breach.

Use strong passwords

Using strong and unique passwords is a fundamental step in enhancing cybersecurity protection for sensitive accounts and systems.

Strong passwords act as the first line of defence against cyber threats that seek to compromise personal and sensitive information.

By creating passwords that are lengthy, complex, and varied across different accounts, individuals can significantly reduce the likelihood of unauthorised access.

Remembering multiple complex passwords can be challenging, leading to the importance of password management tools that securely store and organise passwords.

These tools not only alleviate the burden of memorising numerous passwords but also provide additional layers of security through features like password generators and encryption.

Keep software and operating systems updated

Regularly updating software and operating systems is essential to patch vulnerabilities and protect devices from cyber threats.

By keeping software up-to-date, users can significantly minimise the risk of falling victim to cyberattacks. Outdated systems create loopholes for hackers to exploit and gain unauthorised access to sensitive data. For instance, the WannaCry ransomware attack in 2017 targeted computers running on outdated versions of Windows, causing widespread disruption and financial losses. Automated patch management tools, such as those recommended by the National Cyber Security Centre, streamline the process of deploying updates efficiently across networks, enhancing overall cybersecurity defences.

Use firewalls and antivirus software

Firewalls and antivirus software serve as critical components in defending networks and systems against cyber attacks.

Firewalls act as a barrier between a trusted internal network and untrusted external networks, filtering incoming and outgoing traffic based on predetermined security rules. They monitor and control network traffic based on a defined security policy, preventing unauthorized access and potential threats.

On the other hand, antivirus software detects, blocks, and removes malicious software such as viruses, worms, and trojans from devices to safeguard against threats. It constantly scans files and programs to identify and eliminate malware, ensuring the integrity of the system.

Be cautious of suspicious emails and links

Vigilance against suspicious emails and links is crucial to prevent falling victim to phishing attacks and malware infections.

One of the most effective ways to spot a phishing email is to carefully scrutinize the sender's email address. Phishers often use deceptive tactics such as creating email addresses that closely resemble those of reputable organizations. For instance, a scam email pretending to be from a bank might use a slightly misspelled version of the actual bank's domain. Be wary of urgent or alarming language in emails, as well as requests for personal information or financial details. It's essential to double-check the legitimacy of emails before clicking on any links or attachments.



Cyber security best practices for businesses

Implementing robust cyber security practices is essential for businesses to protect their assets, educate employees, and respond effectively to security incidents.

Developing a comprehensive cyber security plan is the cornerstone of an effective cybersecurity strategy. By creating a detailed roadmap that outlines potential risks, preventive measures, and response protocols, businesses can proactively safeguard their sensitive data and infrastructure.

Plus planning, ongoing employee training plays a crucial role in strengthening organisational defenses. Educating staff about common cyber threats, phishing tactics, and best practices for data protection give the power tos them to recognize and thwart potential attacks.

Implement a cyber security plan

A well-defined cyber security plan is crucial for businesses to outline strategies, protocols, and response mechanisms to mitigate cyber threats.

Such a plan typically includes several key components to provide a comprehensive approach to cyber security. Conducting a thorough risk assessment is essential to identify vulnerabilities and potential threats specific to the organisation. This involves evaluating the existing infrastructure, data protection measures, and potential weak points that could be exploited by cyber attackers.

Integrating advanced technology and automation tools plays a vital role in proactive threat detection. By deploying systems that can monitor network traffic patterns, detect anomalies, and respond to incidents in real-time, businesses can significantly enhance their cyber security posture.

Train employees on cyber security awareness

Educating employees on cyber security awareness is essential to cultivate a security-conscious culture within organisations and prevent human errors that may lead to data breaches.

IBM, a global leader in technology, conducts regular training sessions to enhance employees' understanding of cyber threats and best practices.

These training modules cover topics such as identifying phishing emails, using secure passwords, and recognising potential security breaches.

By emphasising the importance of vigilance and responsible online behaviour, organisations can significantly reduce the risk of cyber-attacks and protect sensitive information.

Regularly backup data

Regular data backup practices are essential for organisations to ensure data resilience, facilitate recovery from cyber incidents, and minimise data loss.

Implementing an effective data backup strategy involves creating multiple copies of critical data and storing them in secure locations, both on-premises and in the cloud. Use of automation tools can streamline backup processes, ensuring that data is consistently and reliably backed up without manual intervention.

Recent backups can significantly reduce downtime and enable swift recovery in case of a cyber-attack or system failure. Regularly testing backup systems is crucial to validate their effectiveness and identify potential weaknesses to be addressed. Entities like Imperva provide comprehensive solutions for organisations looking to enhance their data protection measures.

Monitor network activity

Continuous monitoring of network activity is critical for identifying potential threats, detecting anomalies, and responding promptly to security incidents.

Network activity monitoring plays a vital role in enhancing cybersecurity defences by allowing organisations to gain real-time insights into their network traffic and behaviour. By leveraging cutting-edge tools and technologies such as intrusion detection systems (IDS), intrusion prevention systems (IPS), and security information and event management (SIEM) platforms, entities can proactively monitor for any suspicious activities.

These solutions' automated threat detection capabilities enable the rapid identification of cyber threats and vulnerabilities, significantly reducing the response time to potential incidents.

For instance, platforms like KnowBe4 provide comprehensive network monitoring solutions that integrate threat intelligence feeds, enabling organisations to stay ahead of evolving cyber threats and emerging attack vectors.

Have an incident response plan

Establishing an incident response plan is crucial for businesses to effectively manage and contain security breaches, minimise damage, and facilitate recovery processes.

An effective incident response plan typically includes key components such as clear guidelines for identifying and reporting incidents, designated roles and responsibilities for incident handlers, communication protocols with relevant stakeholders, a detailed escalation process, documentation procedures, and post-incident review mechanisms.

Incident handling procedures involve steps like initial triage, containment, eradication, recovery, and lessons learned. Automation plays a vital role in incident response by enabling faster detection, response, and recovery. Tools like Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solutions and orchestration platforms help streamline processes and decision-making.

Incident response playbooks provide structured guidelines for addressing different types of security incidents, while tabletop exercises simulate real-life scenarios to test the effectiveness of the response plan. Entities like FireEye offer comprehensive incident response services and expertise to assist businesses in navigating through cyber incidents.



Frequently Asked Questions

What is cyber security?

Cyber Security refers to the practice of protecting computer systems, networks, and data from digital attacks, theft, and damage. It involves implementing various measures, such as firewalls, encryption, and authentication protocols, to safeguard against cyber threats and ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information.

Why is cyber security important?

Cyber Security is essential because it helps prevent unauthorized access, manipulation, or destruction of sensitive information, which can lead to significant financial, reputational, and legal consequences. It also ensures the smooth operation of critical infrastructure, such as banking systems, healthcare facilities, and government agencies.

What are common types of cyber attacks?

Some common types of cyber attacks include phishing, malware, ransomware, denial of service (DoS) attacks, and social engineering. Phishing involves tricking users into providing personal information or downloading malicious software through email or fake websites. Malware refers to any software designed to harm a computer system, while ransomware locks users out of their systems until a ransom is paid. DoS attacks disrupt the normal operations of a network or website, and social engineering exploits human psychology to obtain sensitive information.

How can I protect my personal information online?

To protect your personal information online, you can follow these best practices: use strong and unique passwords, enable two-factor authentication, be cautious when clicking on links or opening attachments, keep your software and devices updated, and regularly back up your data. It is also essential to use a reputable antivirus software and avoid sharing sensitive information on unsecured networks or websites.

What are some career opportunities in cyber security?

The field of Cyber Security offers a wide range of career opportunities, including cyber security analyst, ethical hacker, information security manager, cybersecurity engineer, and security consultant. With the increasing demand for skilled professionals in this field, there are also various certification programs and training courses available to help individuals develop the necessary skills and knowledge.

How can companies ensure cyber security?

Companies can ensure cyber security by implementing a comprehensive cybersecurity framework, conducting regular risk assessments, implementing proper security protocols and policies, training their employees on cyber security best practices, and regularly backing up their data. They can also work with reputable cybersecurity firms to conduct vulnerability assessments and penetration testing to identify and address any potential vulnerabilities in their systems.