Cyber Security Threats - All you need to know about Types and Sources

Cyber Security Threats - All you need to know about Types and Sources

By following some simple steps such as using strong passwords, updating your software regularly, and being cautious of suspicious emails, you can better protect yourself from cyber attacks. Let's explore the different types of threats, their effects, and how you can safeguard against them.

On this page, we'll cover:

Key takeaways:

  • Cyber security threats are malicious activities or attempts to gain unauthorized access to computer systems or data.

  • The different types of cyber security threats include malware, phishing, ransomware, DoS attacks, MitM attacks, SQL injection, XSS, social engineering, password attacks, and insider threats.

  • These threats can have serious effects such as financial loss, data breaches, identity theft, and disruption of services. It is important to protect yourself by using strong passwords, updating software regularly, being cautious of suspicious emails and websites, using a firewall, and educating yourself and your employees.


What are cyber security threats?

Cyber Security Threats encompass a wide range of potential risks and vulnerabilities that can compromise the security of digital systems, networks, and data.

These threats can manifest in various forms, such as malware, phishing, ransomware, and other malicious cyber attacks. Malware includes viruses, worms, and spyware, designed to infiltrate systems and steal sensitive information.

Phishing involves deceptive emails or websites tricking users into revealing personal data. Ransomware encrypts data, demanding payment for decryption. To combat these threats, cybersecurity measures like robust firewalls, antivirus software, regular system updates, employee training on recognising phishing attempts, and data encryption are crucial.


What are the different types of cyber security threats?

The landscape of Cyber Security Threats is diverse and includes various types such as backdoor attacks, formjacking, DDoS attacks, and many more that exploit different vulnerabilities in digital systems.

One of the most common types of cyber threat is the Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, where multiple compromised systems are used to flood a target system with traffic, making it unavailable to its intended users. These attacks target websites, networks, and online services, aiming to disrupt normal operations.

Another prevalent threat is phishing, a deceptive technique where cybercriminals impersonate legitimate entities and trick individuals into providing sensitive information like passwords or financial details. Phishing attacks often happen through emails, messages, or fake websites.

Malware attacks, on the other hand, involve malicious software designed to infiltrate systems, steal data, or cause damage. Common forms of malware include viruses, ransomware, and trojans, with the intent to compromise system integrity.


Malware is a common form of cyber attack that includes malicious software such as trojans, spyware, keyloggers, and bots designed to infiltrate and damage computer systems.

Through various delivery methods like phishing emails, drive-by downloads, or infected USB drives, malware can gain access to devices, steal sensitive information, or hijack systems for criminal activities. Trojans masquerade as legitimate software to trick users into downloading them, while spyware stealthily monitors user activity without consent.

Keyloggers record keystrokes to capture sensitive information, and bots automate tasks for malicious intent, such as DDoS attacks. These different types of malware pose serious risks to individual users, businesses, and governments, requiring robust cybersecurity measures to mitigate their impacts.


Phishing is a deceptive cyber attack technique that uses social engineering and exploit vulnerabilities to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information or performing malicious actions.

These attacks often involve emails, messages, or websites that appear legitimate, disguising themselves as trusted entities to deceive victims. They exploit human psychology, such as trust or fear, to manipulate individuals into clicking links, entering passwords, or downloading malware.

Financial institutions, online payment platforms, and e-commerce websites are common targets of phishing attacks. Cybercriminals aim to steal personal and financial data for monetary gain. Individuals, employees of organisations, and even government agencies can also fall victim to these threats.

To prevent falling prey to phishing attacks, it is crucial for individuals to verify the source of any communication before sharing personal information or clicking on unfamiliar links. Utilising email filters, implementing security awareness training, and staying informed about the latest phishing techniques can also help in minimising the risks associated with such cyber threats.


Ransomware is a malicious cyber attack that encrypts a victim's files or data, demanding a ransom in exchange for restoring access, posing a significant threat to data security.

These attacks typically use advanced encryption techniques that make it nearly impossible for victims to decrypt their files without the decryption key. This can have devastating consequences for individuals and organisations, leading to data loss, financial damage, and reputational harm.

As the frequency and sophistication of ransomware attacks continue to rise, it has become crucial for businesses to implement robust cybersecurity measures to protect against these threats.

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks

Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks are cyber attacks that aim to disrupt network services by overwhelming systems, exploiting vulnerabilities in network infrastructure.

These attacks usually target critical resources such as servers, causing them to become unavailable to legitimate users. As a result, businesses can suffer financial losses, reputation damage, and customer dissatisfaction. DoS attacks can take various forms, including ICMP flood, SYN flood, and UDP flood, all with the common goal of exhausting network resources.

To defend against these threats, organisations implement strategies like traffic filtering, rate limiting, and deploying intrusion detection and prevention systems to detect and block malicious traffic before it reaches the target network.

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks involve intercepting communication between two parties, allowing attackers to eavesdrop, modify data, or impersonate legitimate entities, compromising data integrity.

These malicious actors position themselves surreptitiously, acting as a middleman without the knowledge of the communicating parties. By exploiting vulnerabilities in network protocols or hacking into insecure connections, they seamlessly insert themselves into the data flow.

This interception can lead to data manipulation, where sensitive information is altered without detection, interception techniques such as session hijacking or DNS spoofing are common methods used by cybercriminals to carry out these attacks.

SQL injection

SQL Injection is a type of cyber attack that exploits vulnerabilities in web applications to insert malicious SQL code, allowing attackers to manipulate databases and steal sensitive information.

This type of attack can have severe consequences, leading to data breaches, unauthorized access to confidential records, and even the complete loss of control over the database. To prevent SQL Injection attacks, it is crucial for developers to sanitize user inputs, use parameterized queries, and implement input validation to ensure that only safe and expected data is processed.

Application firewalls and regular security audits can also help detect and mitigate potential vulnerabilities, contributing to a more robust defense against cyber threats.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is a web-based cyber attack that injects malicious scripts into web pages viewed by users, exploiting vulnerabilities in web security to steal data or execute unauthorised actions.

XSS attacks can be categorised as reflected, stored, or DOM-based depending on how the malicious script is delivered. Reflected XSS involves the script being reflected off a web server, while stored XSS persists on the server. DOM-based XSS involves manipulation of the Document Object Model. The impact of XSS attacks can range from defacing websites to stealing sensitive user information such as login credentials, payment details, and personal data.

  • To prevent XSS, developers should sanitise user inputs, utilise proper output encoding, and implement Content Security Policy (CSP) to restrict script execution.

  • Regular security audits and penetration testing can help identify and mitigate XSS vulnerabilities before they are exploited by malicious actors.

Social engineering

Social Engineering is a psychological cyber attack method that manipulates individuals into divulging confidential information or performing actions through the exploitation of trust and human psychology.

These attacks often prey on human emotions, such as fear, curiosity, or the desire to help others. By creating a sense of urgency or authority, cybercriminals can convince victims to bypass usual security protocols.

One common technique is phishing, where emails or messages appear legitimate, enticing users to click on malicious links or provide sensitive data. To combat social engineering, organisations must prioritise cybersecurity awareness training to give the power to employees to recognise red flags and verify requests before sharing information.

Password attacks

Password Attacks are cyber attacks that focus on compromising user passwords through methods like brute force attacks or credential theft, highlighting vulnerabilities in access control mechanisms.

Brute force attacks involve automated tools trying countless combinations of characters to guess passwords, exploiting weak or easily guessable ones. On the other hand, credential theft occurs when hackers gain unauthorized access to stored passwords, often through phishing scams or malware.

Having secure password practices is crucial in safeguarding personal and sensitive data. It is essential to create strong passwords that combine letters, numbers, and special characters, avoiding common words or sequences. Using unique passwords for each account and regularly updating them can significantly mitigate the risk of password attacks.

Insider threats

Insider Threats involve individuals within an organisation exploiting their access privileges to intentionally or unintentionally compromise data security, posing a significant risk from within the trusted environment.

These individuals may have a variety of motivations, such as personal gain, revenge, ideology, or simply carelessness. They can leverage their knowledge of the organisation's systems to access sensitive information or disrupt operations.

Organisations must implement robust security measures to prevent and detect insider threats effectively. This includes closely monitoring employee activities, restricting access based on the principle of least privilege, implementing strong authentication mechanisms, and conducting regular security awareness training.



What are the effects of cyber security threats?

Cyber Security Threats can lead to detrimental effects such as financial losses, data breaches, identity theft, and disruptions in essential services, impacting individuals, businesses, and organisations.

Cyber threats are constantly evolving, posing significant challenges to maintaining the security and integrity of digital systems and networks. The ramifications of a data breach are far-reaching, affecting not only the immediate financial standing of a company but also its reputation and customer trust. Identity theft, a common outcome of cyber attacks, can result in long-term consequences for individuals, leading to compromised personal information and financial turmoil.

Service availability can be severely disrupted, causing widespread inconvenience and potentially jeopardizing critical operations. The growing interconnectedness of digital platforms and devices has created new entry points for cybercriminals, making it essential for individuals and organizations to prioritize cybersecurity measures to safeguard against potential threats.

Financial loss

Financial Loss resulting from cyber security incidents can encompass direct monetary damages, regulatory fines, legal fees, and reputational costs that affect businesses and individuals alike.

Cybersecurity breaches can lead to significant financial implications for organisations of all sizes. The costs associated with data breaches often extend beyond the immediate impact, including expenses for forensic investigations, implementing security measures, and potential litigation.

The ransom payments demanded by cybercriminals can drain resources and disrupt operations. Regulatory penalties imposed for data protection violations can further compound the financial burden on businesses. These incidents can also result in diminished customer trust and loyalty, leading to long-term economic consequences.

Data breaches

Data Breaches involve unauthorised access to sensitive information, leading to privacy violations, exposure of personal data, and potential misuse by malicious actors, undermining data security.

These breaches not only jeopardise individual privacy but also pose significant risks to organisations. When personal details such as names, addresses, financial information, or social security numbers fall into the wrong hands, individuals can become victims of identity theft and fraud.

From an organisational perspective, the aftermath of a data breach can be financially devastating, tarnishing reputation and eroding trust among customers and stakeholders. Legal obligations to report breaches may also come into play, depending on the nature and scale of the incident.

Identity theft

Identity Theft occurs when cyber criminals steal personal information to engage in fraudulent activities such as financial fraud, identity fraud, and account takeovers, posing significant risks to individuals' identities.

In the digital age, the prevalence of identity theft has skyrocketed, with cyber security breaches making it easier for malicious actors to compromise sensitive data. The repercussions of falling victim to identity theft can be devastating, leading to financial losses, damaged credit scores, and even tarnished reputations.

To mitigate these risks, individuals should regularly monitor their financial accounts, enable two-factor authentication, and avoid sharing personal information on insecure platforms. Companies must adhere to strict data protection regulations to safeguard customer data and avoid facing legal consequences for negligence.

Disruption of services

The disruption of services due to cyber security incidents can lead to system downtime, operational halts, service unavailability, and financial losses, hampering business continuity and customer trust.

Such disruptions not only affect the internal operations of a business but also have a profound impact on its customer service capabilities. When service disruptions occur, customers may face delays in receiving support or accessing the products or services they rely on.

This can result in dissatisfaction, negative feedback, and even the loss of loyal customers. In addition, the reputation management of the organisation can take a hit, as word spreads about the cyber incident and its consequences, potentially tarnishing the company's image in the eyes of the public.


How can you protect yourself from cyber security threats?

Protecting yourself from Cyber Security Threats requires implementing proactive measures such as using strong passwords, updating software regularly, and educating yourself and your employees on cybersecurity best practices.

One crucial aspect of cybersecurity protection that often gets overlooked is the importance of regularly monitoring your email accounts for any suspicious activity. Hackers often target individuals through phishing emails, attempting to trick them into providing sensitive information.

By staying vigilant and avoiding clicking on suspicious links or attachments, you can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to such threats. Utilising a reliable firewall on your devices can serve as a first line of defence against unauthorised access and malware attacks.

Use strong passwords

Using Strong Passwords is a fundamental step in enhancing cyber security, safeguarding sensitive accounts and data from unauthorised access by utilising complex and unique password combinations.

In the realm of cybersecurity, the strength of a password often dictates the level of protection against malicious actors. With the increasing sophistication of cyber threats, it is crucial to employ robust password practices to bolster online security.

One vital tip for creating secure passwords is to avoid using easily guessable information such as birthdays or common words. Instead, opt for a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters to enhance complexity.

Implementing multi-factor authentication adds an extra layer of security by requiring users to provide additional verification beyond just a password. This significantly reduces the risk of unauthorised access even if the password is compromised. In today's digital landscape, where cyber attacks are rampant, this extra authentication step is essential.

Update your software regularly

Regularly Updating Your Software is crucial for cybersecurity as it helps patch known vulnerabilities, improve system performance, and protect against emerging threats by ensuring that systems are fortified with the latest security updates.

Software updates play a critical role in maintaining cybersecurity hygiene within an organization. Patch management practices are essential in this regard, as they involve identifying, acquiring, testing, and installing updates to address software vulnerabilities. Automating update processes can streamline this crucial task, ensuring that systems are consistently protected.

The risks of running outdated software are manifold, exposing organizations to potential breaches, data loss, and regulatory non-compliance. By staying current with software updates, businesses can significantly reduce their susceptibility to cyber threats and bolster their overall security posture.

Be cautious of suspicious emails and websites

Being Cautious of Suspicious Emails and Websites is essential for cyber security awareness, as malicious emails and websites can harbour phishing attempts, malware downloads, and social engineering schemes that compromise personal and organisational security.

When assessing the legitimacy of an email, pay attention to the sender's email address, especially if it seems unusual or if the domain name is misspelt. Phishing emails often contain urgent language or requests for sensitive information, designed to create a sense of urgency and prompt you to act without thinking critically. It's crucial to avoid clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown sources, as they could lead to malware infecting your device.

Use a firewall

Using a Firewall is a critical cybersecurity measure that acts as a barrier between the network and potential threats, monitoring and controlling incoming and outgoing traffic to safeguard systems from unauthorised access and malicious activities.

Firewalls play a vital role in network security by analysing data packets and determining whether to allow them passage based on predetermined security rules. There are several types of firewalls such as packet-filtering firewalls, proxy firewalls, stateful inspection firewalls, and next-generation firewalls, each with its specific strengths and weaknesses.

Configurations of firewalls can be customised according to the organisation's requirements, allowing administrators to set up rules for inbound and outbound traffic, create virtual private networks (VPNs), and monitor network activity for any suspicious behaviour. By enforcing these rules, firewalls act as a shield against cyber threats, blocking unauthorised access attempts and protecting sensitive data.

Educate yourself and your employees

Educating Yourself and Your Employees on cyber security best practices is key to building a resilient defence against cyber threats, fostering awareness, preparedness, and a security-conscious culture within the organisation.

By implementing cybersecurity education and training programmes, companies can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to cyber attacks. These programmes not only equip employees with the knowledge to identify and mitigate potential threats but also instil a sense of responsibility towards safeguarding sensitive data and company assets.

Simulated phishing drills serve as a practical way to test employees' readiness and response to real-life cyber threats, helping them recognise common phishing tactics and avoid falling for malicious schemes.


Frequently Asked Questions

What are common cyber security threats?

Common cyber security threats include malware, phishing attacks, social engineering, ransomware, DDoS attacks, and insider threats.

How can I protect my personal information from cyber security threats?

Some ways to protect your personal information from cyber security threats include using strong and unique passwords, avoiding suspicious links and emails, using antivirus software, and being cautious about sharing personal information online.

What are some recent cyber security threats?

Recent cyber security threats include the SolarWinds supply chain attack, the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack, and the Microsoft Exchange Server vulnerabilities.

How do cyber security threats impact businesses?

Cyber security threats can have a significant impact on businesses, including financial losses, damage to reputation, and disruption of operations. They can also result in regulatory fines and legal liabilities.

What should I do if I suspect a cyber security threat?

If you suspect a cyber security threat, you should immediately report it to your organization's IT department or cyber security team. You should also change any compromised passwords and take steps to secure your devices and accounts.

How can I stay updated on the latest cyber security threats?

You can stay updated on the latest cyber security threats by regularly checking reputable sources such as the US-CERT, subscribing to security newsletters, and following trusted cyber security experts on social media.